Art Detectives: Young Woman with Servant

Following on from a blog about Dido Elizabeth Belle, one of our lovely readers made us aware of this unusual painting titled, Young Woman with Servant which is on display at Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art.

Stephen Slaughter. English, 1697–1765.  Young Woman with Servant by Stephen Slaughter (1697-1765).
Stephen Slaughter. English, 1697–1765.  Young Woman with Servant by Stephen Slaughter (1697-1765). Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, Hartford, Connecticut, The Ella Gallup Sumner and Mary Catlin Sumner Collection Fund.

Why unusual? It is odd on so many levels. For starters the subject matter, it is titled ‘young woman with servant’ so which is the young woman and which the servant? Whilst looking at it, we found ourselves almost playing a game of ‘spot the difference’.

Let’s look at each woman in turn. The seated woman is wearing no jewels apart from very plain earrings and a jewel on her apron. The artist has made her face appear somewhat one-dimensional and she’s staring into the distance. Would she really have been the one holding the fruit? The hat with flowers is such, a typical wide-brimmed day hat.

The servant: she is dressed in all her finery, notice the detailed lace around the neckline and the arms of the dress, much more elaborate than the lace which the other woman is wearing. She wears no hat, instead, a form of headdress with a fashionable feather in it and a jewel. And those jewels! She is much more adorned than her seated companion, wearing an elaborate necklace and earrings too. Her hand resting on the naked skin of the other woman – would a servant ever be allowed to do that? A symbol of intimacy, surely not acceptable at that time?  She is also looking directly at the artist (and viewer) and appears much more three-dimensional. The dress may also be riding habit, if you look closely you can see the ‘frog fasteners’ typically used on outdoor wear.

Detail from the portrait of Young Woman with Servant by Stephen Slaughter.

The setting itself looks to be a hothouse or possibly an artificial grotto. There is fruit in the seated woman’s apron and the orange just about to be picked and added to it. Notice the chair that the ‘mistress’ is sitting on.

We have tried to find a similar example of that period, but without success, although there are reproductions of virtually the same chair dating from the late 1800s which describe it as Rococo (1725-1755), possibly French or Italian, playful, ornate and curvaceous, with a shell-shaped back and serpent arms.

So, it does rather beg the question, is the young woman standing really a servant or an equal? It has also been given the title, Two Society Women.

The painting appeared in a Sotheby’s catalogue of sales dated 19th November 1986, which gave it a yet another, Ladies Gathering Fruit, c.1750, so we contacted Sotheby’s hoping for some more information on its provenance, but unfortunately, they were unable to provide responses to individual questions, so we were no further forward. We also approached Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art and are still hopeful of a more positive response from them.

Sir Robert Walpole (1676-1745), Prime Minister by Stephen Slaughter
Sir Robert Walpole (1676-1745), Prime Minister by Stephen Slaughter; Parliamentary Art Collection

We then decided to research the artist himself, Stephen Slaughter for more clues.

Sir Hans Sloane, by Stephen Slaughter
Sir Hans Sloane, by Stephen Slaughter; National Portrait Gallery, London

Stephen was born in London in January 1697, one of five surviving children of Stephen and Judith Slaughter. Their other children were Edward, Catherine, Mary and Judith.

Very little seems to be known about his life and as such he warrants very few mentions in books, only half a dozen entries in the newspapers of the day, a brief resume in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biographies and a short entry on Wikipedia.

Gertrude, Daughter of John Leveson Gower, 1st Lord Gower by Stephen Slaughter
Gertrude, Daughter of John Leveson Gower, 1st Lord Gower by Stephen Slaughter; The National Trust for Scotland, Alloa Tower

Slaughter studied under the famous Godfrey Kneller, then travelled abroad to France and Flanders, returning to England around 1732. He then moved to Dublin for a number of years, returning to London in the 1740s.

In 1745 he was appointed Surveyor of the King’s Pictures (George II), with a salary of £200 per annum (around £24,000 in today’s money). From 1748 until his death in 1765, Slaughter spent time on picture restoration. He was buried on 2nd April 1765 at Kensington.

Portrait of Sir Edward Walpole's Children by Stephen Slaughter
Portrait of Sir Edward Walpole’s Children by Stephen Slaughter. Minneapolis Institute of Arts

Just to set the record straight here, only one of his female siblings married and that was his sister, Judith.

There has been much debate as to whether she married the artist John Lewis, but we can confirm that she didn’t –  she married a Paul Lewis, when she was aged just 16, as confirmed by the marriage allegation dated 4th January 1726, St Giles in the Field.

Judith was widowed by the time her brother Edward wrote his will in April 1770. We can confirm, however, that the artist, John Lewis’s wife was Mary as named in his will, proven 1781.

Judith Slaughter's marriage allegation to Paul Lewis, 1726.
Judith Slaughter’s marriage allegation to Paul Lewis, 1726.

Each of the siblings left their estate to the next in line with Catherine being the last to die in 1786.

Suggestions have been made that this is a portrait of Dido Elizabeth Belle with Lady Mary Milner. This seems extremely unlikely as the two women look to be of similar age and Lady Mary was considerably older than Dido.

If we accept that it was painted by Stephen Slaughter then he died when Dido was a mere toddler so it couldn’t possibly be her in the painting. So either way, as much as we would like it to be a portrait of both women, the theory falls flat on its face.

The portrait raises far more questions than it answers, so if anyone knows anything more about this painting, we would love to hear from you.

UPDATE 9th March 2019 – A Painting Within a Painting

Well, we did ask people to get in touch if they knew any more about the painting and we were contacted by Sheila Graham-Smith who is presently researching it, which sent us disappearing down another rabbit hole.

To cut a long story short, we knew from the Sotheby’s sale catalogue that there was a familial connection between the Manvers family of Thoresby Hall and the Butterfield family at Cliffe Castle, so arguably the painting could be of someone from either side of the family, or simply a painting purchased by someone in the family for its aesthetic value.

Purely by chance, we came across this painting by Marie-Louise Roosevelt Pierrepont (1889-1984), of Thoresby Hall, which is a painting of her daughter, at Thoresby.

Interior of Thoresby Hall (incorrectly identified as Cliffe Castle), with a Seated Girl and Dog (and showing the portrait, 'Ladies Gathering Fruit' (alternatively Young Woman with Servant) by Marie-Louise Roosevelt Pierrepont
Interior of Thoresby Hall (incorrectly identified as Cliffe Castle), with a Seated Girl and Dog (and showing the portrait, ‘Ladies Gathering Fruit’ (alternatively Young Woman with Servant) by Marie-Louise Roosevelt Pierrepont; © The Stonebridge Trust. Photo credit: The Pierrepont Collection

To the back of the painting you will clearly see that she had painted in Slaughter’s painting, ‘Ladies Gathering Fruit‘ (alternatively titled, Young Woman with Servant). The location of the painting whilst at Thoresby was clearly not taking pride of place, merely hung at the end of a corridor.

I contacted Thoresby who were able to confirm that, whilst not presently on display, they do hold the painting by Marie-Louise Roosevelt Pierrepont, a prolific artist and that the location depicted was Thoresby Hall and not Cliffe Castle as queried by ArtUK, but that they don’t know anything more about the original.

We have now reached another dead-end with research in terms of identifying either of the sitters, but hopefully, we’ll get there eventually.


I have recently been been sent yet another version of the painting, but note the differences. I now have no idea which would have been the original painting.

Sources London and Surrey, England, Marriage Bonds and Allegations, 1597-1921 [database on-line]

Anecdotes of Painting in England. Horace Walpole

Greater London Burial Index

26 thoughts on “Art Detectives: Young Woman with Servant

  1. Lally Brown

    Fascinating Sarah … and those pearls WOW ! Sorry Sotheby’s couldn’t be more help, I’ve been researching a painting sold by Christie’s in 1862 thought to be by de Vlieger and Christies have been amazingly helpful providing me with the name and address of the vendor and details of the person who bought the painting. Good luck with your ‘rabbit hole’ research and please let us know what happens! 😁


    1. Sarah Murden

      The pearls are amazing. Sadly, no luck getting a response from Christie’s, but we don’t give up and we’ll report back with any news 🙂


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  3. Like you, I’m curious as to who gave it the title and when … “Young woman with servant” –
    But who looks younger in this picture? The composition & clothes challenge our normal preconceptions.


  4. Lily

    I recently watched a Documentary called A Stitch in Time featuring Amber Butchart who is a fashion historian. In one of the episodes they recreate a dress worn by Dido who was actually a ladies companion to Lady Elizabeth. Dido was fathered by an English gentleman who then brought her back from the West Indies to live with his uncle.Check out Wiki for more info on Dido
    Elizabeth Belle.


    1. Sarah Murden

      Hello Lily

      Many thanks for getting in touch with us. We did see that programme, it was really interesting. You might be interested in checking out this blog post as much has changed since the wiki entry for her. The link will take you to all the new information we have found about Dido and her family during our research into her life –


    2. Danny

      Dido was not just a “ladies companion”. She was the second blood cousin of Lady Elizabeth as the daughter of Sir John Lindsay, nephew of William Murray, Earl of Mansfield, who raised her.

      Liked by 1 person

      1. Sarah Murden

        You’re absolutely correct Danny. We have written quite a bit about her life and family here on our blog to set some records straight and to add new information 🙂


  5. Rebekah

    Could this possibly have some connection to Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, who was born at Thoresby as Lady Mary Pierrepont? She famously spent a period in Constantinople and wrote about slavery etc there.


    1. Sarah Murden

      Hi Rebekah, thank you for your suggestion and yes, I thought it had something to do with Lady Mary, but I have very recently been told that the portrait was bought in an antique shop by the Butterfield side of the family with no provenance, so I do now need to contact the relevant archives to see if I can make progress that way. If you’d like to be even more baffled than I am with this please see the end of the article for an update I’ve just added!


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  7. Amber Burbidge

    Hi do you have a reference or title for the final painting of just one of the ladies? I was hoping to use the comparison for my studies- very interesting though!


    1. Sarah Murden

      Hello Amber

      The copy of the portrait was sent to me by a reader, who had in turn, received from its owner. The owner referred to it as ‘Lady in a Kentish Chair’, now whether that is its actual title I really don’t know and it’s not possible for me to contact the owner to ascertain.

      The owner suggested that the painting may have been by Slaughter, but also suggested possibly Philip Mercier or even George Beare, but they weren’t certain.

      I hope that helps a little


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  9. Jennieke

    Looking at the features of the darker woman I believe that she may have lived a lived a life similar to Dido Elizabeth Belle the two women look related in my eyes… there’s something to the shape of face and the chin and nose


      1. Christopher Normand

        Good Morning Sarah
        I was amused that the Wadsworth Atheneum Afrt Museum picture has raised its head again! I think I may have mentioned that I corresponded, briefly, 20 odd years ago with an American who was convinced that this de[icted Dido and her mother, but we discounted that at the time. When I have finally laid my current project to bed (my maternal family history) I must get back to the Lindsay connection – when I hope to benefit from all your research to get a better picture of Sir John L and his troop of children prior to his marriage to Mary Milner


        1. Sarah Murden

          Good morning, Christopher. As much as I would like it to be another portrait of Dido, I’m as certain as I can be that it isn’t, but as to who the women were I’ve still no idea, but I’m still working on it. Do keep in touch re Dido though 🙂


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