Sir Joseph Banks’ fishing trips in Lincolnshire

Sir Joseph Banks, Bt by Joshua Reynolds
Sir Joseph Banks, Bt by Joshua Reynolds; National Portrait Gallery, London

Just in case you weren’t aware of Sir Joseph Banks, he was born in London, but when he was 21 he inherited the impressive estate of Revesby Abbey in Lincolnshire from his father.  After leaving university, minus a degree, he became a renowned British naturalist, patron of the natural sciences, travelling the globe, ultimately he became president of the Royal Society from 1778 until his death in 1820.

Weighing the fish after a haul. The tall gentleman in the foreground of the people is Sir Joseph Banks with a net full of fish. Boston Stump in the background. Yale Center for British Art.
Weighing the fish after a haul. The tall gentleman in the foreground of the people is Sir Joseph Banks with a net full of fish. Boston Stump in the background. Yale Center for British Art.

In March 1779, Banks finally settled down and married Dorothea Hugessen. The couple spent most of their time in  London, however, each autumn they made a trip back to Banks’ ancestral Lincolnshire.

Cookery near Langrick Ferry, Lincolnshire. Yale Centre for British Art
Cookery near Langrick Ferry. Yale Centre for British Art

During these visits, apart from numerous other things that he had to attend to on his estate, Banks, his wife Dorothea and his younger sister, Sarah Sophia, who lived with them, made several fishing trips to survey the fish in the river Witham.

A page from the journal detailing Sir Joseph Banks' fishing trip in Lincolnshire. Yale Center for British Art
A page from the journal. Yale Center for British Art

A record of these trips was brought to our attention so, naturally, we had to find out more. A copy of the book itself is available via the Yale Centre for British Art, ‘Sir Joseph Banks’s fishery book of the River Witham in Lincolnshire, 1784-1800’. The book itself contains records of the number of fish in the river along with their measurements, which unless you’re interested in fishing it isn’t terribly exciting, but it also contains information about the weather and any unusual events, such as the eclipse of 5th September 1795. Sadly, we only have space to include some of the sketches in this post, so for more information, we recommend checking out the book itself on the Yale website (it has been scanned page by page, so it’s not the easiest of books to navigate, so a little patience is required).

The windmills at Chapel Hill, Lincolnshire. Yale Center for British Art.
The windmills at Chapel Hill. Yale Center for British Art.

By far the most fascinating aspect of this book is the sketches, we doubt they were meant for public viewing, but simply a reminder and a way of describing their trip to friends and family – the way we do today with our cameras, but for historians, they provide a fascinating snapshot of life during that period.

T. Wilsons house, near the Witham, Lincolnshire taken during an eclipse of the sun. You can just make the woman looking up towards the sky. Yale Centre for British Art
T. Wilsons house, near the Witham, taken during an eclipse of the sun. You can just make the woman looking up towards the sky. Yale Centre for British Art

On their travels, they took along a large number of friends who ate with them on the river bank or on the boat. Note the canopy in this next image, which was used to shelter under when it rained, which it often did!

Going to dinner near Coppin Sike (Copping Syke, Lincolnshire). Yale Centre for British Art. Note the formality of the occasion, the lady, quite possibly Lady Banks, on the right being escorted onto the boat.
Going to dinner near Coppin Sike (Copping Syke). Yale Centre for British Art. Note the formality of the occasion, the lady, quite possibly Lady Banks, on the right being escorted onto the boat.

They also took along some ‘would be’ artists who drew sketches along the route they were travelling, which ran from the Kyme Eau, which runs through the centre of the tiny village of South Kyme, (which is a few miles from the town of Sleaford), when it became the Witham, for a distance of around 15 miles through neighbouring villages of Dog Dyke, Langrick Bridge, Anton’s Gowt until it reached the outskirts of the port of Boston.

The Kyme Eau, at South Kyme, Lincolnshire as it looks today meandering through the countryside to where it joins the Witham at Chapel Hill. ©Sarah Murden
The Kyme Eau, at South Kyme, as it looks today meandering through the countryside to where it joins the Witham at Chapel Hill. ©Sarah Murden
A scramble for fish. Yale Centre for British Art
A scramble for fish. Yale Centre for British Art

The book contains sketches of the routes taken on each occasion plus 26 colour illustrations of places and people.

One name kept recurring in the sketches, ‘Eno’s House’. At first, we thought perhaps it was a reference to an acquaintance until we tracked it down to being the name of the landlord, Edward Eno, who, with his wife Rosamond, was the landlord of The Monson Arms, near Anton’s Gowt, on the bank of the river. His son, Hildred Eno, took over as the landlord in the 1850s. The pub no longer exists as such, but there is a house on the bank of the river which could just possibly be it.

Eno's house on Frith Bank. Yale Centre for British Art
Eno’s House on Frith Bank. Yale Centre for British Art
Frith Bank, Lincolnshire.
Frith Bank, Lincolnshire. Google Maps

The book is well worth taking a look at to give you an idea of how rural Lincolnshire looked back in the late 1700s.

List of pictures and their respective artist from the journal of Sir Joseph Banks' fishing trip in Lincolnshire.
List of pictures and their respective artist

We have recently been researching Sir Joseph Banks for our latest book, All Things Georgian in which we tell more about Sir Joseph Banks’ Women.

Featured Image

Tattershall from the Witham September 1794

18th Century Trade Cards

Thomas Bakewell, next door to the Horn Tavern in Fleet Street, London. Selleth all sorts of fine French, Italian and Dutch prints and maps...
Courtesy of Lewis Walpole Library

Today we hand out business/trade cards like confetti, most being mass produced for a few pounds. With that in mind, we thought it might be interesting to take a look at the same commodity in the Georgian period. The variety of ‘trade cards’ is immense everything from grocers, to wholesalers, from funeral directors to hosiers and hatters, the list just goes on; every trade you can think of and many more you would never have thought of. The aim of these cards was to achieve maximum publicity so it was important to make them both visual and textual.

Trade cards were used to establish links with other local businesses and were taken very seriously as they were legally binding contracts. They were often handed out in public squares and markets, a great marketing tool as they still remain today. Trade cards would usually have a merchant’s name and address along with a description of where to find them. They also served as invoices, receipts, and places to jot down quotations, price lists, and other handwritten information.

One thing we had noticed was how much more intricate they are in design than anything you would see today. They are so fascinating that we simply had to share a few with you.   According to the British Museum, many of the cards they hold were originally collected by the sister of Sir Joseph Banks, Sarah Sophia Banks, who will make an appearance in another of our books in the future. We wanted to include a portrait of Sarah Sophia Banks and in our usual style, this caricature of her really was too much for us to resist … sorry!

An old maid on a journey by James Gillray, published by Hannah Humphrey
Courtesy of the National Portrait Gallery

We hope you enjoy them as much as we enjoyed looking for them.

Our first offering is ‘Daniel, a real working Goldsmith  & Watchmaker, of Clare Street, Bristol’.  There were so many for goldsmiths and horologists that we were totally spoilt for choice.

Daniel a Goldsmith Bristol
Courtesy of the British Museum

In the 18th century, all but the upper-class women would have had to work and there are a surprising number of trade cards still in existence relating to female occupations.  Women were barred from most trade guilds and there were few if any formal organisations to support them. The only exception being that if a woman’s husband died she would be entitled to run his business and his membership of that guild would be transferred to her meaning that she could retain his privileges and also take on apprentices thereby allowing the business to continue to operate.  For financial reasons a widow would probably need her late husband’s business to continue and so she would have trade cards printed to ensure the continued support of his clients.

elizabeth bagwell
Courtesy of the British Museum

Our next reads as follows-

Catherine West, at the Hatt & Seven Starr’s in Monmouth Street the Corner of Browns Gardens Facing the Seven Dials, Sells all sorts of Womens Apparel Both New & Second Hand Wholesale & retail at reasonable rates viz. silk gowns, scarlet cloaks, market womens cloaks, all manner of stuffs in the piece, russells, stuffs damasks, cambletts, cambletees, prunell’s , callamancoe’s, Irish stuffs, joans, spinning & made in the gentelest manner, likewise gives ready money for womens apparel rich or plain, N.B. At the above place are sold ladies beavers, mens hatts new or second hand by the maker John West.

Trade card for Catherine West
Courtesy of Lewis Walpole Library

Howgate & Edmondson, sadlers and cap makers, opposite the Coventry Cross near Conduit Street In New Bond Street, London.

Trade card for Horgate & Edmondson, sadlers and cap makers
Courtesy of Lewis Walpole Library

The painter, William Hogarth’s sister Mary and Ann were also running their own business, ‘frock makers’, frocks being outerwear, not dresses as we may refer to them as today, in their case they made clothes for children.

Trade card for Mary and Ann Hogarth. © Bodleian Library, University of Oxford: John Johnson Collection
© Bodleian Library, University of Oxford: John Johnson Collection
Charles Hill tea dealer and grocer
Courtesy of the British Museum

Our next one is Charles Hill, a grocer, selling amongst other things coffee, chocolate and cocoa – clearly a place we would have spent hours in!

Followed by Ashlin, a glass carver, grinder and guilder, his importance being denoted by the use of the Prince of Wales feathers a crown and motto ‘Ich dien’, a crown and laurel garland on top of the oval; lion and unicorn supporters.

Glass grinder
Courtesy of the British Museum

A somewhat more artistic card, that of  David Shilfox, engraver and printer, at 349 Oxford Street, opposite Oxford Market, London.

engraver
Courtesy of the British Museum

We would like to share this card that was very kindly brought to our attention by our friend, the Female Master of the Worshipful Company of Glass Sellers.

Trade card for John Cotterell, china-man and glass-seller. © Bodleian Library, University of Oxford: John Johnson Collection.
© Bodleian Library, University of Oxford: John Johnson Collection

A tea that is just as popular today as it probably was in 1804 – Twinings being sold by John Deck.

Twinings Tea
Courtesy of the British Museum

For the wealthy of the 18th-century pineapple was immensely popular so we couldn’t resist including the trade card for Negri and Wetten, confectioners, at the Pineapple, Berkeley Square.

pineapple
Courtesy of the British Museum

For those who like something a little more obscure, we offer the trade card for  H Longbottom, skeleton supplier.

DRAFT Trade card of H Longbottom, skeleton supplier
Courtesy of the British Museum

And finally  we have Owen and Cox, appraisers, undertakers, at their ‘upholstry and carpet warehouse’, … Funerals furnished‘.

Apraisers and undertakers

In case you weren’t aware of it, there is more information in the London Book Trade 1775 – 1800, in this excellent, searchable resource

The Bodleian Library online also has a wonderful section on trade cards that are worth a look.